SQL Server is a database system for storing data. These days, many developers are writing applications that work with databases, so the developer often needs a SQL Server installed to have a database system to develop and test against. SQL (pronounced "ess-que-el") stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is used to communicate with a database. ANSI (American National Standards Institute) is the standard language for relational database management systems. SQL statements are used to perform tasks such as update data on a database or retrieve data from a database. Some common relational database management systems that use SQL are Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft SQL Server, Access, Ingres, etc. Although most database systems use SQL, most of them also have their own additional proprietary extensions that are usually only used on their system. However, the standard SQL commands such as "Select," "Insert," "Update," "Delete," "Create," and "Drop" can be used to accomplish almost everything that one needs to do with a database.
In today's competitive world, every business wants technologies that automate their business processes, reduce their processing time, and improve accuracy. Modern businesses don't like to hassle with data management either, and as a solution of the same, Microsoft introduced the Structured Query Language (SQL) Server.
Microsoft SQL Server is software that revolutionized the way businesses store and uses data. At any given time, a business may need to deal with massive data related to employees, clients, suppliers, stakeholders, etc. The relational database management system (RDBMS), SQL Server, eases data handling, regardless of its size, and secures data from unauthorized access.
Until 2015, the operability of SQL Server was limited to only Windows environment. Microsoft generalized this RDBMS, making it available on Linux in 2016. SQL Server stores and retrieves data, allowing it to run on both – the same computer or another across a network. The software is available in various editions to meet the distinct requirements of different business sizes. The four primary editions of SQL Server are as mentioned below:
- SQL Server Developer edition: used in the development and testing of the database.
- SQL Server Expression: used for creating small databases, with the maximum disk storage capacity of 10 GB.
- SQL Server Enterprise Edition: used in businesses that need to manage a larger amount of data.
- SQL Server Standard Edition: used in basic data management, reporting, and analysis.
Components of SQL Server
The two primary components of a SQL Server architecture are – Database Engine and SQL Server Operating System.
A database engine creates and executes various database objects, like views, triggers, store procedures, etc. It is further divided into two components – relational engine and storage engine.
A relational engine, also known as a query processor, includes components that execute queries in the best possible ways. It also manages memory, thread, task, and buffer.
A storage engine stores data and retrieve it when demanded by the relational engine for processing. It also manages database files, index, pages, etc.
SQL Server Operating System (SQLOS)
As the name says, an SQLOS provides the services of an operating system. It manages memory and Input/Output and handles exception and synchronization.
The SQL Server works on a client-server architecture. The roles that a client (workstation) and a server plays in this architecture are as mentioned below:
A workstation is an interface installed in the SQL Server operator's machine to interact with the server. Some examples of workstation components are SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS), Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM), Profiler, etc.
Server components include services installed in a centralized server. Some examples of server components are SQL Server Agent, SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS), SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS), SQL Server's Analysis Services (SSAS), SQL Server Full-Text Search, etc.
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